Tuberculosis

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Dr. Vinod Kumar Maini

  • MD
  • 40 years experience

Dr. Mrinal Sircar

  • DNB (Respiratory Diseases), DTCD , MD (TB & Chest Diseases), MBBS
  • 33 years experience

Dr. Aloke Gopal Ghoshal

  • MD , DNB , FCCP , Ex-WHO Fellow , Fellow ICS
  • 30 years experience

Dr. Prasanna Kumar Thomas

  • MD (Tuberculosis and Chest Diseases), DTCD
  • 28 years experience

Dr. AK Mandal

  • MBBS in 1993 from Maulana Azad Medical College and Diploma in Tuberculosis, Chest Diseases from Vallabh Bhai Patel Chest Institute, Delhi, DNB in Respiratory Diseases from Lala Ram Swarup Institute of TB & Respiratory Diseases, New Delhi.
  • 18 years experience

Dr. K Vijayasaratha

  • MD, DNB, MRCP (UK), CCT (UK), PG.Med.Edu (UK)
  • 18 years experience

Dr. Vivek Nangia

  • MD (Respiratory Medicine), M Sc Infectious Diseases (London)
  • 17 years experience

Dr. Raja Dhar

  • FCCP (USA) , CCT (UK), MRCP (UK), M Sc (Evidence Based Medicine, UK) , Diploma in Palliative Care for Physician (Teeside University, UK) 6. Certificate in Medical Education (Newcastle University, UK) 7. MD (Respiratory Medicine, Kolkata)
  • 15 years experience

Dr. Amit Gupta

  • M.B.B.S, M.D.
  • 14 years experience

Dr. Ravi Shekhar Jha

  • M.B.B.S., MD (Pulmonary Medicine)
  • 9 years experience

Dr. Devender Chhonker

  • M.D. (Paediatrics) & Indian diploma of paediatric critical care medicine, M.B.B.S
  • 7 years experience

Dr. Rominder Kaur

  • MD Pulmonology
  • 5 years experience

Dr. Ankit Bansal

  • M.D(Respiratory Medicine), IDCC(Critical Care), FCCP (USA)
  • 5 years experience

Dr. K. Rajkumar

  • FCCP, DNB
  • 5 years experience

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Dr. Vivek Anand Padegal

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Dr. Nitin Gupta

  • MBBS, IDPCCM
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  • MD, MBBS
  • 0 years experience

Dr. Gargi Maitra

  • M.B.B.S. , MD
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Dr. Ajay Kumar

  • MD (TB & Chest Respiratory Diseases) , M.B.B.S.
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  • MBBS, DNB (Resp Disease)
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  • MBBS , DNB-Pulmonary
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Dr. Sudharshan K S

  • MBBS, , DTCD, , DNB (PULMONOLOGY)
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  • CPS
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About Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is a disease caused by an infection in the lungs of the body. Among various deadly diseases, this is a medical condition that is considered as the second biggest killer worldwide. There are various types of TB found in humans. It is believed that a bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the main culprit behind the onset of this disease.

There could be various risk factors for TB. Its symptoms and signs of pulmonary TB include fever, night sweats, cough, hemoptysis (coughing up blood-stained sputum), weight loss, fatigue, and chest pain. The treatment of TB depends on the specific type of TB and tends to be extensive with the use of anti-Tb drugs.

The prognosis for suitably treated TB infection is awesome. The prognosis reduces in individuals who emerge complications or who have had earlier underwent Tuberculosis treatment.

TB is basically an airborne pathogen, referring that the bacteria that cause TB can extend through the air from individual to individual.

Types of Tuberculosis

According to renowned doctors in India, there are primarily two types of tuberculosis infection.

  • Latent TB - The bacteria prevail in the human body in an indolent state. They produce no symptoms and are not contagious, but they can get active.
     
  • Active TB – In this case, the bacteria do generate symptoms and can be conveyed to others.

According to a recent search, almost one-third of the world's population is supposed to be suffering from latent. There is a 10 percent probability of latent getting active, but this risk is quite higher in individuals who feature weakened immune systems, i.e., people living with HIV or malnutrition, or people who smoke regularly.

Tuberculosis is known to affect all age groups and all regions of the world. However, the disease mainly affects young adults and individuals living in developing countries.

Signs and symptoms of tuberculosis

Though there various types of Tuberculosis, pulmonary tuberculosis is found to behind for the majority (about 85%) of Tuberculosis infections. Therefore, pulmonary symptoms and signs may emerge out with or even before other kinds of Tuberculosis are detected. The typical clinical symptoms and signs of pulmonary Tuberculosis may include the following:

  • Fever
  • Night Sweats
  • Cough (frequently chronic)
  • Hemoptysis (coughing up bloody sputum)
  • Decrease or loss of appetite
  • Weight loss and/or muscle weakness (unintended)
  • Fatigue and/or malaise
  • Chest pain (pain while breathing)
  • Shortness of breath
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Pneumonitis (might be the only symptom in elderly people)

Other types are roughly categorized as extrapulmonary and often carry symptoms that are generic but frequently contained to the affected site.

Causes of Tuberculosis

It is the role of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium that becomes the reason behind the onset of this disease. It is spread from person to person when the infected person sneezes, coughs, spits, laughs, or speaks.

Being a contagious disease, it is hard to catch. The probabilities of getting TB from a person you live or work with are much higher than from an unknown person. A majority of people with active Tuberculosis who have got proper treatment for a minimum of 2 weeks are no longer transmissible.

Since the use of antibiotics has become common in combating, some stresses have become resilient to drugs. Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) emerges when an antibiotic flop to kill all of the bacteria, with the living bacteria evolving resistance to that antibiotic and often others at the same time.

Risk factors for Tuberculosis

Though the disease doesn’t spread easily, it is typically communicable between people who live in close contact. There are a number of risk factors for getting tuberculosis. Specific groups of individuals carry a high risk, such as people who work in the healthcare industry and other domain where TB-infected people may live (jails, nursing homes, group homes for HIV patients, homeless shelters). A close relationship with drug users or individuals with known TB infections is also at increased risk.

Other people at high risk include the following:

  • Visitors and immigrants from regions known to have more incidences of TB
  • Children and the elderly with enfeebled immune systems (particularly those with a positive TB skin test)
  • HIV infected people
  • Drug abusers, particularly drug abuse
  • Head and neck cancer patients
  • Transplant patients
  • Diabetics
  • Kidney disease patients
  • People undergoing immunosuppressive therapy
  • Silicosis

Prevention of Tuberculosis

There are several precautionary things people can choose to prevent the spread of TB. One great way is to avoid coming into contact with infected people. This tends to minimize the risk of germs reaching to other people. Wearing a mask, covering the mouth, and room ventilation can also restrict the spread of bacteria. In some regions, BCG injections are given to children to vaccinate them against tuberculosis.

Treatment of Tuberculosis

Most of the Tuberculosis cases can be treated when the appropriate medication is available and used correctly. The exact type and length of antibiotic treatment rely on the patient’s age, general health, possible resistance to drugs, whether the TB is latent or active, and the exact location of infection (i.e., the lungs, brain, kidneys).

People suffering from latent TB may need just one type of Tuberculosis antibiotics, whereas patients with active TB (specifically MDR-TB) will often need a prescription of different drugs. Antibiotics are typically needed to be administered for a comparatively long time. The typical length of time for a course of antibiotics is about 6 months.

medication is found to be poisonous to the liver, and although side effects are relatively rare, when they do occur, they can be very grave. Possible side effects should be conveyed to a doctor and include:

  • Darker urine
  • Fever
  • Jaundice
  • Decrease in appetite
  • Nausea and vomiting

It is necessary for any course of treatment to be finished completely, even if the TB symptoms have vanished. Any bacteria that have endured the treatment could become resistant to the medication that has been suggested and could lead to the development of MDR-TB in the future.

Directly observed therapy (DOT) may be optional. This encompasses a healthcare worker directing the medication to guarantee that the course of treatment is finished.

Treatments for Tuberculosis

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