Hepatitis

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Dr.(Prof.) Sanjay Singh Negi

  • MS, MCh, FEBS, FACS
  • 0 years experience

Dr. V. P. Bhalla

  • MBBS, MS, FICS
  • 0 years experience

Dr. Arvinder Singh Soin

  • FRCS (Gen Surg) Intercollegiate Board in General Surgery (subspecialty – Transplant Surgery, 1997, FRCS (Glas), Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow, 1993, FRCS (Edin), Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, 1993, Primary FRCS Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, 1992, MS (THESIS), All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, 1989, MBBS, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, 1985
  • 0 years experience

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About Hepatitis

Hepatitis is a medical condition that is indicated by the inflammation of liver. There could be different reasons behind the swelling of liver and symptoms may vary in different individuals.

The foremost job of the liver is to purify the blood, preserve vitamins and produce hormones. Hepatitis is found to disrupt these processes and cause various health issues all across the body. There are typically five viruses that can cause hepatitis. The three most common ones are hepatitis viruses A, B and C. A perfect infected with any of them could face dangerous situations.

Types of Hepatitis Viruses

The three major types of hepatitis are known as hepatitis A, B, and C. Each is caused by a different virus. All three types can be severe, lasting for 6 months or less, and types B and C can be long-lasting, lasting for longer.

Each type of virus has distinctive characteristics and it is transmitted in different ways, however, its symptoms are known to be similar. Let’s get to know about each of them.

Hepatitis A

This type is generally mild, and a majority of infected individuals can expect to get fully recovery. This makes them protected from repetitive sessions of threat in the future. However, it is important to note that its symptoms can be extreme and life-threatening.

According to a research, it has been found that people in various parts of the world with unhygienic conditions are specifically at risk of contracting HIV.

The hepatitis A virus (HAV) is more prevalent in regions of low socioeconomic status with a deficiency of proper sanitation. It expands through contaminated food and water or close person-to-person contact. Children often carry it. The considerable improvements in hygiene, public health policies and evolution of a new vaccine have resulted into the reduced number of cases worldwide.

Symptoms of Hepatitis A

Most of the people have no symptoms with HAV, but if symptoms come out, it is generally 15 to 50 days after infection. A majority of adults will experience symptoms a like flu.

These include:

  • Nausea, loss of appetite, and vomiting
  • Abdominal pain and diarrhea
  • Fever
  • Malaise and fatigue
  • Joint pain
  • Jaundice, a yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes
  • Dark-colored urine and pale stools

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B can be communicated when an individual:

  • Performs unprotected sexual intercourse with an infected partner
  • Shares a needle with an infected individual, often for illegal drug or steroid use
  • Has a tattoo made with unsterilized needles
  • Is unintentionally pricked, for example, health workers dealing with sharp materials
  • Shares personal belonging, such as a toothbrush or razor, with an infected person
  • Is bitten by an infected person

HBV infection can get chronic. This can cause complications, such as scarring of the liver, or cirrhosis. It can also lead to a type of cancer known as hepatocellular carcinoma. Currently, there is no perfect cure for HBV. However, the occurrence rate has reduced in regions where the vaccine is available, and this vaccine is found to be 95 percent effective against the infection.

Hepatitis C

HCV is known to cause damage to liver along with swelling. Around 1 in 4 people with HCV facecirrhosis and this can cause liver cancer.Donated blood is now examined for HCV, but individuals who received organ transplants or blood donations before test became part of the donation process may be at higher risk.

Symptoms of Hepatitis B

Most people with hepatitis face either mild or no symptoms. When symptoms emerge, they do so from 15 to 180 days after infection. This is applied to all types of hepatitis.

Acute Hepatitis

The primary stage of hepatitis is known as the acute phase. The symptoms are very much like mild flu, and may include:

  • Jaundice hepatitis
  • Jaundice is a symptom of hepatitis.
  • Diarrhea
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of appetite
  • Mild fever
  • Muscle or joint aches
  • Nausea
  • Slight abdominal pain
  • Vomiting
  • Weight loss
  • Jaundice

The acute stage is not generally dangerous, but in specific people, it can cause acute liver failure and death. It may also lead to a chronic infection. This is most probably with HBV or HCV.

As the disease moves further, chronic hepatitis can lead to progressive liver failure, causing jaundice, swelling of the lower extremities, confusion, and blood in the feces or vomit.

The following may emerge:

  • Dark urine
  • Hives
  • Itchy skin
  • Light-colored feces
  • Yellow skin, whites of the eyes, and tongue

Patient results after the acute phase rely on several factors, particularly the type of hepatitis. Some people will not know they have chronic hepatitis until liver failure occurs.

Causes of Hepatitis

The three most general versions of viral hepatitis are all caused by viral infections.

Hepatitis A is sourced by taking food or water infected with the hepatitis A virus (HAV), often while traveling overseas. The virus can also be communicated through anal-oral contact during sex or by using drugs.

Hepatitis B is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and is extended through contact with infected blood, semen, and some other body fluids. It could be a sexually transmitted disease (STD).

Hepatitis C mostly emerges from percutaneous infection, when the HCV virus gets under the skin. It is generally spread through injected narcotics, needle-stick injuries, and a deficiency of infection control in healthcare scenario.

HCV cannot be wedged from contact with feces, and sexual transmission is rare than in other types.

Alcohol, medicines, obesity, and chemical exposure do not lead to types A, B, or C, but they may worsen inflammation and make symptoms poor.

Prevention

Hepatitis can be hazardous and hard to treat; therefore people are advised to take precautions against probable infection.

Preventing hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is primarily spread through contaminated food and water.

The below steps can help avert infection, particularly when traveling.

  • Wash hands with soap after visiting bathroom.
  • Only consume freshly cooked food.
  • Only drink bottled water or boiled water if you're not sure about local sanitation.
  • Only eat peelable fruits if you are in a region with improper sanitation
  • Only eat raw vegetables if you are confirmed they have been washed or disinfected thoroughly.
  • Get a vaccine for HAV before visiting places where hepatitis may be endemic

Preventing hepatitis B

To reducem the risk of transmission:

  • Informyour sex partner if you are doubtful of getting the disease.
  • Follow safe sex using condoms.
  • Only use previously vacant, clean needles.
  • Do not share toothbrushes, razors, or manicure instruments.
  • Only permit the use of well-sterilized skin perforating equipment, such as during a tattoo, piercing, or acupuncture.
  • Have the HBV vaccination in case of risk.

Preventing hepatitis C

As this is generally passed on through the movement of infected bodily fluids, the below steps can help prevent HCV transmission:

  • Try not share needles, toothbrushes, or manicure equipment.
  • Ensure equipment is well-sterilized for any skin piercing.
  • Take alcohol with moderation.
  • Do not use illegal drugs.
  • Hepatitis A and C can be cured, but hepatitis B is only preventable by vaccine. A cure is still under process.

Treatment of Hepatitis in India

Some types and incidences of hepatitis can recuperate without intervention, but often it can lead to scarring of the liver, or cirrhosis.

Hepatitis A

There is no particular treatment available for HAV. The doctor will tell the patient to stay away from alcohol and drugs to speed up the recovery. Most patients with hepatitis A will recover without intervention.

Hepatitis B

A patient with HBV must need to undergo rest and abstain totally from alcohol. The doctor may suggest an antiviral agent called interferon, or other antiviral suppressive therapies.

Hepatitis C

A patient with hepatitis C will be approved antiviral agents, with or without ribavirin.

Some popular antivirals and combination therapies are now ready for use to treat the hepatitis C virus based on its subtype. These treatments focus on viral replication and prevent the virus from being able to replicate. When followed properly, the cure rate is very high.

Treatments for Hepatitis

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