Ebola

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Dr. Anju Jain

  • MRC PATH (HAEM) London 1993, FRC PATH (HAEM) London 2002
  • 30 years experience

Dr. Ashok Vaid

  • D.M. (Medical Oncology), Dr. MGR Medical University, Chennai, 1993, M.D. (General Medicine), Govt. Medical College, Jammu, 1989, M.B.B.S., Govt. Medical College, Jammu, 1984
  • 30 years experience

Dr. Satya Prakash Yadav

  • Fellow in Paediatric Hemato- Oncology, Royal Alexander Hospital for Children, Westmead, Australia, 2005, D.N.B. (Paediatrics), Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, 1999, Diploma in Child Health Maulana Azad Medical College, 1998, M.B.B.S., University College of Medical Sciences, 1994
  • 24 years experience

Dr. Rahul Bhargava

  • MBBS and MD (General Medicine) from Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal, DM in Haematology and Stem Cell Transplant from AIIMS, New Delhi, Advanced Fellowship in Unrelated & Haploidentical Transplant from Vancouver
  • 20 years experience

Dr. Prantar Chakrabarti

  • DNB (General Medicine) , DM (Clinical Haematology) , MD (General Medicine)
  • 17 years experience

Dr. Nitin Sood

  • CCT (Haemato Oncology), General Medical Council, UK, 2010, F.R.C. (Pathology), Royal College of Pathologists, UK, 2010, MRCPath (Associate Haematology), Royal College of Pathologists, UK, 2008, MRCP (UK), Royal College of Physicians, UK, 2005, D.N.B. (General Medicine), National Board of Examination, 2002, M.D. (General Medicine), Army Hospital, Delhi University, 2002, M.B.B.S., Govt. Medical College, Mysore, 1997
  • 16 years experience

Dr. Neha Rastogi

  • Fellowship (Bone marrow transplantaton & Leukemia), Vancouver General Hospital, Canada, 2014, Fellowship (Paediatric Haemato oncology), B.J. Wadia Hospital for Children, Mumbai, 2013, Fellowship (Paediatric Haemato Oncology & Bone marrow transplantation), Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, 2012, DNB (Paediatrics), National Board of Examtinations, 2009, Diploma in Child Health BDR Medical College, Gorakhpur, 2006, MBBS, Chaudhary Charan Singh University, Meerut, 2003
  • 15 years experience

Dr. Aniruddha Dayama

  • MD, MBBS
  • 8 years experience

Dr. Mitu Papneja Shrikhande

  • MBBS
  • 0 years experience

Dr. Subhaprakash Sanyal

  • MD, DM (CLINICAL HAEMATOLOGY)
  • 0 years experience

Dr. Karthikeyan A

  • MD, DM
  • 0 years experience

Dr. Shyam Rathi

  • MD, DM
  • 0 years experience

Dr. Dharma Choudhary

  • DM Clinical Hematology -All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), MD Internal Medicine, MBBS, Fellow Ship BMT - Leukemia/ BMT program of British Columbia, Vancouver General Hospital and BC Cancer Agency, Canada.
  • 0 years experience

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About Ebola

Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a very uncommon and lethal disease most generally affecting people and nonhuman primates (monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees). It is actually sourced by an infection with one of five known Ebola virus species, four of which can promote disease in individuals:

  • Ebola disease (Zaire virus)
  • Sudan disease (Sudan virus)
  • Taï Forest disease (Taï Forest virus, formerly Côte d’Ivoire)
  • Bundibugyo disease (Bundibugyo virus)
  • Reston virus (Reston), known to cause disease in nonhuman primates and pigs, but not in people.

Ebola virus was first found in the year 1976 near the Ebola River. Today, it lies in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Since then, the virus has been affecting people from time to time, causing eruptions in various African countries. Scientists are not able to discover where Ebola virus emerges from. However, basis the nature of parallel viruses, they think that the virus is animal-borne, with bats being the most probable source. The bats having the virus can pass it on to other animals, such as apes, monkeys, duikers, and humans.

The virus affects individuals who come in direct contact with bodily fluids of a sick person with or the one who has died from it. This can take place when a person traces the infected body fluids (or objects that are contaminated with them), and the virus gets in through wrecked skin or mucous membranes through the eyes, nose, or mouth. The disease can also extend to people through direct contact with the blood, body fluids and tissues of infected fruit bats or primates. People can get the disease through sexual contact too.

Infected survivors may encounter problematic side effects even after their recovery, such as weariness, muscle pain, eye and vision issues and stomach pain. Survivors may also come across disgrace as they try to be a part of their communities. Before the diagnosis of Ebola, other diseases should be wiped out, and, if it is supposed, the person should be secluded. Regional doctors must be informed immediately.

Ebola virus infections can be identified conclusively in a laboratory by conducting various types of tests, including:

  • Antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing.
  • IgM ELISA.
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
  • isolation disease.

Symptoms of EVD are:

  • Fever
  • A harsh headache
  • Muscle aches
  • Weakness
  • Fatigue
  • Diarrhea
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal (stomach) pain
  • Mysterious hemorrhage (bleeding or bruising).

Symptoms may become visible anywhere from 2 to 21 days after contact to Ebola, but the average is 8 to 10 days. Recovery from it relies on the level of supportive clinical care and the patient’s immune response. People who are found to recover from Ebola infection develop antibodies that can withstand for a minimum period of 10 years.

How virus transmission takes place?

As the regular reservoir swarm of viruses has not yet been discovered, the way in which the disease first shows its presence in a human at the start of an outbreak is not yet found. However, scientists perceive that the first patient gets infected by coming in contact with an infected animal, such as a fruit bat or primate (apes and monkeys), which is known as a spillover event. Person-to-person transmission trails and can result in a large number of affected people. In earlier outbreaks, primates were also affected by Ebola and more than one spillover events occurred when people touched or ate infected primates.

In case of infection in humans, the disease can be extended to others through direct contact (through the shattered skin or mucous membranes in, for instance, the eyes, nose, or mouth) with

  • Blood or body fluids (including but not restricted to urine, saliva, sweat, feces, vomit, breast milk, and semen) of an individual who is suffering or died from it.
  • Stuff (such as needles and syringes) that have been soiled with body fluids from a human who is sick with Ebola or the body of a dead person.
  • Diseased fruit bats or primates (apes and monkeys), and
  • Probably from contact with semen from a man who has recuperated from Ebola (for instance, by indulging in oral, vaginal, or anal sex)

It doesn’t spread through the air, by water, or by food. However, in Africa, Ebola may be spread as an outcome of treating bushmeat and exposure to infected bats. There is no proof that mosquitoes or other insects cancarryvirus. Only a few species of mammals (e.g., humans, bats, monkeys, and apes) have exhibited the capability to get infected with and feast Ebola virus.

Risk factors for Ebola outburst

The peril of constricting Ebola is low. There is a higher risk of getting infected when:

  • Visiting areas of Africa where there have been proven cases of Ebola.
  • Carrying out animal research with monkeys brought from Africa or the Philippines.
  • Giving medical or personal care to individuals who may have been infected with Ebola.
  • Readying bodies for burial that have been infected with Ebola virus.

Treatment for Ebola

Currently, there is no verified vaccine available for Ebola. Though various vaccines have been tested, no one is found to be effective against the virus.

At present, treatment for Ebola is restricted to exhaustive supportive care and includes:

  • managing the patient's fluids and electrolytes
  • watching their oxygen status and blood pressure
  • treating a patient for any obscuring infections

In October of 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) prepared an expert consultation to measure, test, and finally license two capable vaccines:

cAd3-ZEBOV - GlaxoSmithKline has prepared this vaccine in association with the United States National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIH). It contains a chimpanzee-derived adenovirus vector with a virus gene injected.

rVSV-ZEBOV – This vaccine was developed by the Public Health Agency of Canada in Winnipeg with NewLink Genetics, a firm in Ames, IA. The vaccine practices an enfeebled virus located in livestock; one of its genes has been substituted by an Ebola virus gene.

Treatments for Ebola

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