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About Pulmonology

Pulmonology is branch of medicine that looks after the disorders related to the respiratory functions of the body. The pulmonologists treat conditions such as chronic obstructive lung disease, interstitial lung disease, asthma, bronchitis, lung cancer, sleep apnoea, lung infections and respiratory failure.

The respiratory system includes the organs that help you breathe. The three major parts of this system are the airway, the lungs, and the respiratory muscles.

The airway includes the:

  • Nose
  • Mouth
  • Pharynx
  • Larynx
  • Trachea
  • Bronchi
  • Bronchioles
  • Alveoli

At a time when air pollution is on the rise all across the world, the role of pulmonologists is extremely vital.

A pulmonologist conducts pulmonary function tests (PFTs) to measure how well your lungs take in and exhale air. The tests also check how well your lungs transfer oxygen into the blood. There are several different tests:

  • Spirometry measures how well the lungs exhale (breathe out)
  • Lung volume measures how well the lungs inhale (breathe in)
  • Tests of the diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) show how efficiently the lungs transfer oxygen into the bloodstream

Pumonary Function Tests Help :

  • Diagnose diseases of the lung such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema
  • Determine the cause of shortness of breath
  • Measure the effects of chemicals, coal dust, and other toxins on lung function
  • Measure the effectiveness of medicines and other treatments

Subspecialties of pulmonology can include:

  • interstitial lung disease, which focuses on lung diseases marked by persistent inflammation and scarring
  • Interventional pulmonology, which employs multidisciplinary care to treat airway disorders, lung cancer, and pleural diseases
  • Lungs transplantation
  • Neuromuscular disease, which refers to conditions that occur due to respiratory muscle failure
  • Obstructive lung disease, which involves airway narrowing or obstruction
  • Sleep-disordered breathing

Pulmonology is classified as an internal medicine subspecialty. Because of the variety of clinical problems encountered, knowledge of internal medicine and other specialties is required in order to obtain certification.

Conditions pulmonologists commonly treat include:

  • Asthma
  • Bronchiectasis, which occurs when your lungs can’t clear mucus
  • Bronchitis, which happens when you have inflamed mucous membranes
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which causes an airflow blockage
  • Emphysema, which happens when the alveoli in your lungs are damaged
  • Interstitial lung diseases, which affect the space and tissue around the alveoli
  • Occupational lung diseases, which can occur due to the inhalation of dusts, chemicals, or proteins
  • Obstructive sleep apnoea, which causes your breathing to slow or stop entirely when you’re sleeping

Pulmonologists can perform exams and tests to help determine a lung-related diagnosis. This can include a:

  • CT scan to get detailed images of the bones, muscles, fat organs, and blood vessels in your chest
  • chest fluoroscopy to see how well your lungs are functioning
  • chest ultrasound to examine the organs and other chest structures
  • lobectomy to remove one of the lobes of your lungs
  • pleural biopsy to remove a small tissue sample from the pleura, which is the membrane that surrounds your lungs
  • pulmonary function test to see how well your lungs are working
  • pulse oximetry test to determine the oxygen saturation level in your blood
  • transplantation to remove the diseased lung and replace it with a healthy lung
  • thoracentesis to eliminate air or fluid from around your lungs
  • bronchoscopy to test your airway and determine if you have any issues in your trachea, lower airways, throat, or larynx
  • sleep analysis to help them diagnose sleep disorders, such as sleep apnea


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