Transplantation

Nephrology Treatment – Decoding the Complexity

February 5th, 2018
Nephrology Treatment – Decoding the Complexity

The field of nephrology is one discipline of medicine that looks after the diseases related to kidneys such as chronic kidney disorder, kidney stones, adrenal cancer, kidney failure and many others. There are many hospitals in India that are known to provide world-class nephrology treatment to people coming from different parts of the world. An expert who undergoes specialty training in the field of nephrology is called nephrologist.

Nephrology looks after the diagnosis and treatment of kidney disease, including electrolyte disturbances and hypertension, and the upkeep of patients needing renal replacement therapy, including dialysis and renal transplant patients. Several diseases affecting the kidney are systemic disorders not restricted to the organ itself, and may need special treatment. Examples include acquired conditions such as systemic vasculitides (e.g. ANCA vasculitis) and autoimmune diseases (e.g., lupus), as well as congenital or genetic conditions such as polycystic kidney disease.

The field of nephrology in India encompasses various elements and procedures such as:

  • Glomerular/vascular disorders — Glomerular/vascular disorders refers to the diseases of the glomeruli or groups of blood vessels in the kidneys. Kidney doctors devise treatment methods to help retard the development of these disorders to safeguard kidney function for as long as they can.
     
  • Tubular/interstitial disorders — Tubular/interstitial disorders affect the tubules of the kidneys and the nearby tissues. The tubules accumulate the filtered fluid from the kidneys that eventually becomes urine. Kidney doctors learn the signs of these disorders and ways to treat them.
     
  • Hypertension — Hypertension is another term refers to high blood pressure, and it is the second commonly known cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD) in the world. When kidneys expel too much of a substance called renin, blood pressure may shoot up. Kidney doctors learn about the various types of medicines that tend to reduce blood pressure, as well as other options for lowering blood pressure such as diet and exercise.
     
  • Dialysis — Dialysis is the procedure of filtering the blood when the kidneys no longer operate. Kidney doctors learn about hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis — the two kinds of dialysis — so they can match their patients with the dialysis treatment that works appropriately for their health and lifestyle.
     
  • Kidney transplantation — A kidney transplant is done when someone gets a kidney from someone else to substitute their own damaged kidneys. Nephrologists learn about all elements of kidney transplantation so they can help their patients understand and concoct for this procedure.
     
  • Mineral metabolism — Mineral metabolism disorders take place when there are unusual amounts of minerals in the blood. Kidney doctors learn how to rectify or manage mineral metabolism disorders to ensure that their patients receive the amount of minerals they need for healthy growth and to keep their bodies functioning as they should.
     
  • Management of acute kidney failure — Acute kidney failure is a condition when the kidneys unexpectedly stop working. Sometimes the kidneys can regain from acute kidney failure. Kidney doctors learn to deal all reversible situations that cause acute kidney failure, such as kidney stones, infections or heavy blood loss.
     
  • Management of chronic kidney disease — Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is when the kidneys gradually stop working over a period of time. There are five stages to CKD, with the last stage being end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Kidney doctors know about the five stages of chronic kidney disease and how to control them so they can delay the progression of kidney disease and keep their patients as healthy as possible.
     
  • Nutrition — Nutrition plays an important role in slowing the progression of kidney disease and living healthy with kidney failure. Kidney doctors understand the type of nutrients kidney patients can and cannot have so they can help their patients get the nutrition they require.
     
  • Interpretation of x-rays, sonograms and other tests — Some kidney diseases are found through x-rays, sonograms, and other tests. The domain experts learn how to analyze the results of these tests so they can make precise diagnoses.

It is recommended to visit a nephrologist in India if he or she experiences:

  • Acute renal failure
  • Stage 4 or 5 chronic kidney disease
  • Accelerated decline in kidney function
  • Chronic urinary tract infections
  • Repeat urinary tract infections
  • High blood pressure that does not respond to medication
  • A glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 30 or lower
  • Repeat kidney stones
  • Blood loss in the urine
  • Protein loss in the urine

Dialysis is one of the commonly chosen procedures for the treatment of a range of kidney diseases. Various kidney conditions are remedied by dialysis to eliminate toxins, mineral accumulation and excess fluid from the body when the kidneys have damaged. More than 2.5 million people count on timely dialysis treatment to prevent the further damage of organs these toxins can cause when they build up in the blood. Dialysis is done while the patient suffers with a kidney-related illness, at dialysis clinics prescribe by a nephrologist in India.

Hemodialysis

During dialysis, a special vascular access in the lower arm enables the dialyzer—the “artificial kidney” machine—to throw blood out of the body where it is filtered outwardly to eliminate the waste products and additional fluid. While the blood is “cleaned” in the dialyzer, the machine also examines the flow of blood outside of body and controls the composition of the dialysis fluid that is used to throw out the metabolic waste products before with the filtered blood is then thrown back to body. Anticoagulants may also be included to the dialysis procedure to avert blood clotting. Hemodialysis is typicallydone for at least four hours and three times a week, most commonly in a dialysis unit.

Peritoneal dialysis

The peritoneal cavity—the lining of your abdomen—works as the filter for filtering the blood since it has characteristics similar to those of the dialyzer equipment. The pores in the peritoneal membrane enable specific substances through, while preserving others. In case of peritoneal dialysis, the blood is cleaned in the body through a tube or catheter that is inserted into the peritoneal cavity in the abdomen. The dialysis solution having glucose is injected through the tube and left to absorb the contaminants in your blood. Afterward, the fluid with the impurities of toxins and excess water is eliminated through the tube and thrown off into a bag and substituted with fresh solution. This procedure of filling and draining can be performedphysically during the day, or at home at night employing a cycler. There are two kinds of peritoneal dialysis: continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and automated peritoneal dialysis employing a cycler.

 

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