Based on the types of cells they develop from the thyroid cancer can be categorized into several types. Further these types of cancer are used to determine the best suited treatment option for the thyroid cancer. The best thyroid cancer medical professional examine the condition of the patient with various diagnosis procedures and then determine the best treatment option.
The thyroid cancer is a condition in which the healthy cells inside the thyroid gland turn into abnormal cells and begin to grow abnormally. This gland is located in the front side of the neck just below the larynx that is known as the voice box. The main function of this gland is to absorb iodine from the bloodstream to produce thyroid hormones, which regulate a person’s metabolism. The thyroid gland that is healthy is not very visible that means that this gland is hard to find through touch. When the cancer develops in the thyroid gland it can be felt as the lump in the neck. Through the course of this article we will take a look at the different types of thyroid cancer and their treatment options.
There are multiple kinds of thyroid cancer that can be distinguished based on the how similar they look to the thyroid cells and the type of cell they develop from. There are mainly five types of thyroid cancer that can be found in people. Below is the brief description of the types of thyroid cancer-
Papillary cancer- This is one of the most kinds of cancer and around 80% of the thyroid cases are of papillary cancer only. This is a cancer that develops form the follicular cells and is positioned in the one or both lobes of the thyroid glands.In some cases this cancer spread to the nearby lymph nodes in the neck but are treatable through some good treatment options.
Follicular cancer- This is a second most common kind of thyroid cancer that accounts for about one out of 10 cases of this cancer. The follicular tumor does not spread to the nearby lymph nodes but can spread to the nearby organs like kidneys. Due to this it is considered as more severe condition in comparison to the papillary cancer. It is found more frequently in countries with an inadequate dietary intake of iodine.
Hürthle cell cancer- This is a kind of follicular carcinoma and is also known as oxyphil cell carcinoma. This cancer accounts for about the 3 percent of all thyroid cancers.
Medullary thyroid cancer- Developing from the c Cells in thyroid gland medullary thyroid cancer is more severe form of thyroid cancer than the papillary or follicular cancers. In total 4% of the thyroid cancer accounts for the Medullary cancer itself or any of its subtype. In comparison to other differentiated cancer this cancer is more likely to spread to lymph nodes and other organs. They also frequently release high levels calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), which can be detected by blood tests.
Anaplastic carcinoma- This is most aggressive form of cancer that quickly spreads to the every part of the neck and body. It accounts for about 2% of all the thyroid cancer. This type of cancer is themost undifferentiated type of thyroid cancer, meaning that it looks the least like normal cells of the thyroid gland.
There are number of treatment options that can be used by the medical professional based on the diagnosis procedure results. The option chosen will mainly depend upon the factors like the type, stage, of thyroid cancer and the overall health with the preferences of patient. Some of the treatment methods for thyroid cancer are as follows-
Surgery- Most of the thyroid cancers are treated by the use of surgical method. Through the different surgical methods the most part of the thyroid, the lymph nodes, or just some part of the thyroid can be removed depending upon the location and size of the thyroid.
Thyroid hormone therapy- In this therapy thethyroid hormone medication levothyroxine (Levoxyl, Synthroid, others) will be given to the patient for life.
Radioactive Iodine- In this treatment option the large portions of the radioactive iodine is used after the thyroidectomy to destroy any remaining unhealthy thyroid tissue. Moreover, through this therapy the microscopic areas of thyroid cancer that weren't removed during surgery is removed through this treatment.
External radiation therapy- High-energy beams such as x-rays and protons are given to the patient externally at the specific points of your body. This treatment method is usually used when the cancer is not removed completely after the surgery.
Chemotherapy- It is treatment method in which the specific drugs are injected into the body of the patient to kill the cancer cells. This treatment is not very commonly used to thyroid cancer but it is used in specific cases where other treatments are unable to provide relief.
Targeted Drug Therapy
This is treatment method in which the drugs like the Cabozantinib (Cometriq), Sorafenib (Nexavar) and Vandetanib (Caprelsa) that are used to kill the specific cancerous cells.
These are just some of the treatment methods for thyroid cancer apart from them any other method can also be used by the medical professional.
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