Important Things to Know About Lung Cancer -

Important Things to Know About Lung Cancer -

Important Things to Know About Lung Cancer -
  • Healboat
  • February 7th, 2018
  • Views 614

It is not always true that people who smoke can get lung cancer but people who have never smoked may also get affected. Read on to know more about lung cancer and its various signs in this article. 

Also called lung carcinoma, Lung Cancer is defined by a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in the lung tissues. Lung cancer is the most prevalent cause of cancer deaths in women and men both in the India and all across the world. Lung cancer has exceeded breast cancer as the major cause of cancer deaths in women for the past 25 years.

If lung cancer is detected at an early stage, a minimum of half of such patients will be saved and free of recurring cancer five years later. Once lung cancer has metastasized, that is, extend to other distant organs, the five-year overall survival is below 5%.

Cancer develops when general cells face a transformation that sources them to grow unusually and grow without control and possibly spread to other parts of the body. The cells create a mass or tumor that varies from the nearby tissues from which it ascends. Cancers are also known as malignant tumors. Such tumors are fatal because they yield oxygen, nutrients, and space from healthy cells and as they attack and destroy or affect the functional ability of normal tissues.

A majority of lung tumors in India are found to be malignant. This indicates that they invade and damage the healthy tissues around them and can spread throughout the body. The lung is a perfect place for a cancer to grow because it features a very complex network of both blood vessels and lymphatic channels through which cancer cells can extend.

  • The tumors can extend to closely located lymph nodes or through the bloodstream to other organs. This process of growth is known as metastasis.
  • When lung cancer metastasizes, the tumor in the lung is known the primary tumor, and the tumors in other regions of the body are known as secondary or metastatic tumors.

Some tumors in the lung are metastatic from cancers away in the body. The lungs are a general location for metastasis. In this situation, the cancer is not meant to be lung cancer. For instance, if prostate cancer extends via the bloodstream to the lungs, it is called metastatic prostate cancer (a secondary cancer) in the lung and not called lung cancer.

Lung cancer is made up of a cluster of different kinds of tumors. Lung cancers generally are divided into two major groups that account for about 95% of all cases.

  • The division into groups is based on the kind of cells that comprised the cancer.
  • The two major types of lung cancer are categorized by the cell size and cell type of the tumor when checked under the microscope. They are known as small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). NSCLC includes various subtypes of tumors.
  • SCLCs are less general, but they grow more rapidly and are more meant to metastasize than NSCLCs. Often, SCLCs have already extended to other regions of the body when the cancer is detected.
  • About 5% of lung cancers are of uncommon cell types, such as carcinoid tumor, lymphoma, and others.

The particularkinds of primary lung cancers are as follows:

  • Adenocarcinoma (an NSCLC) is the most general kind of lung cancer, comprising of 30% to 40% of all cancers. A subtype of adenocarcinoma is known asbronchoalveolar cell carcinoma, which exhibits a pneumonia-like appearance on chest X-rays.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma (an NSCLC) is the next most common kind of lung cancer, making up about 30% of all cases.
  • Large cell cancer (another NSCLC) makes up 10% of all cases.
  • SCLC makes up 20% of all cases.
  • Carcinoid tumors make up 1% of all gears.

Signs & Symptoms of Lung Cancer

Some common symptoms of lung cancer are:

  • cough
  • difficulty breathing
  • spitting or coughing blood
  • chest pain
  • hoarseness
  • problems swallowing
  • Sudden vision problems
  • Shortness of breath

Causes of lung cancer

Almost 90% of lung cancers emerge due to the use of tobacco. Cigarette smoking is the most prevalent cause of lung cancer.Cigarette smoke is known to have more than 4,000 chemicals, many of which have been termed as causing cancer.

A person who takes more than one pack of cigarettes daily has a 20-25 times more risk of getting lung cancer than an individual who has never smoked.

Cigar and pipe smoking augments the risk of lung cancer but not as much as smoking cigarettes.

Other causes of lung cancer, involving causes of lung cancer in nonsmokers are given below:

  • Passive smoking, or secondhand smoke, gives another big risk of developing lung cancer. An assessed 3,000 lung cancer deaths are found to occur each year in the U.S. that are caused by passive smoking.
  • Air pollution from vehicles, factories, and other sources possibly augment the likelihood for lung cancer, and many people believe that continuous exposure to polluted air is alike extended exposure to passive smoking in terms of risk for developing lung cancer.
  • Asbestos exposure surges the risk of lung cancer nine times. A mix of asbestos exposure and cigarette smoking raises the risk to as much as 50 times. Another cancer called mesothelioma (a type of cancer of the inner lining of the chest cavity and the outer lining of the lung known as the pleura, or of the lining of the abdominal cavity called the peritoneum) is also sturdily associated with introduction to asbestos.
  • Lung diseases, such as tuberculosis (TB) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also pose a risk for lung cancer. An individual with COPD has a four to six times greater risk of lung cancer even when the effect of cigarette smoking is omitted.

Lung Cancer Treatment in India

Lung cancer treatment in India relies primarily on whether SCLC or NSCLC is active. Treatment also depends on the exact stage of the tumor. In NSCLC, the recital status of the patient is a majorfactor of the chances of benefit from treatment. Performance status relates the patient's functional status -- how well they are performing as compared to their pre-illness levels of day to day activity. Risk of side effects and complications increase and probably of benefit decreases with diminishing performance status. In SCLC, a quick response to treatment occurs often enough to overcome this issue.

In severe cases, lung transplant in India emerges out as the most sought after option. A lung transplant is taken as the last option for remedying lung failure. However, it carries some risks. The lung transplantation cost in India is reasonably low as compared to other countries.

The biggest risk of a lung transplant is organ rejection. This occurs when the immune system attacks the donor lung as if it were an ailment. Extreme rejection could result into the failure of the donated lung.

Other risks of lung transplant surgery in India include:

  • bleeding and blood clots
  • cancer and malignancies due to immunosuppressant’s
  • diabetes
  • kidney damage
  • stomach problems
  • thinning of your bones (osteoporosis)
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