Cancer

Everything You Need to Know About Anal Cancer

February 19th, 2018
Everything You Need to Know About Anal Cancer

It is generally known that any type of cancer could provide fatal for us. There are different types of cancers that affect different parts of the body but generally they refer to the uncontrolled growth of cancerous cells in the body.  One commonly found cancer type is anal cancer.

A cancer that starts in the anus is known is anal cancer. Let’s get to know more about it in the following post. Before we move further, it is necessary to know about anus first.

What is anus?

The anus refers to the opening at the lower part of the intestines. It's is the place where the end of the intestines connect to the outside of the body.

When digestion takes place, the food passes from the stomach to the small intestine. It then transmits from the small intestine into the primary part of the large intestine (known as the colon). The colon is meant to absorb water and salt from the digested food. The waste object that's left after going through the colon is called feces or stool. Stool is stowed in the end part of the large intestine, known as the rectum. From there, stool goes out of the body through the anus in the form of bowel movement.

This opening of anal is linked to the rectum via the anal canal. The length of this canal is 1-1/2 inches and traverses from the rectum to the anal verge.

The anal canal fluctuates as it moves from the rectum to the anal verge:

  • Cells above the anal canal (in the rectum) and in the region of the anal canal near to the rectum are appeared like tiny columns.
  • Majority of cells near the middle of the anal canal are fashioned like cubes and are known as transitional cells. This area is referred as the transitional zone.
  • Around midway down the anal canal comes the dentate line where most of the anal glands empty into the anus.
  • Flat (squamous) cells lay just below the dentate line.
  • At the anal edge, the squamous cells of the lower anal canal merge with the skin just external the anus. This skin around the anal verge (known the perianal skin or the anal margin) is also comprised of squamous cells, but it also encompasses sweat glands and hair follicles, which are not located in the lining of the lower anal canal.

Anal cancer is categorized into 2 types that required different treatment approaches.

  • Cancers of the anal canal (above the anal verge).
  • Cancers of the anal margin (below the anal verge).

What is anal cancer?

Anal cancer refers to a kind of cancer affecting the tissues of the anus. Cancer is basically a cell disease, which are the body’s basic building blocks. The body continuallycreates new cells to help us grow, replace worn-out tissue and settle injuries. Generally cells multiply and die in an arrangedfashion.

When cells stop growing, dividing and die in the general way, they sometimes create a lump known as a tumor. If the cells are cancerous, they can extend through the bloodstream or lymph fluid and form another tumor at a new place. This new tumor is known as secondary cancer or metastasis.

Types of Anal Cancer

Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) Major of anal cancers are squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), which come from the flat (squamous) cells that cover much of the anus. The term ‘anal cancer’ generally refers to these SCCs, and this page concentrates on this kind of anal cancer.

Adenocarcinomas: - A small number of anal cancers are adenocarcinomas, which begin from cells in the anal glands. This category of anal cancer is very much alike bowel cancer and is managed in a similar way.

Skin cancers: - A very small number of anal cancers cause damage to the skin just outside the anus. Referred as perianal skin cancers, they are managed in a similar way to skin cancers that are located on other parts of the body.

Symptoms of anal cancer

In its early stages, anal cancer often produces no clear symptoms. However, some individuals may come across symptoms such as:

  • blood or mucus in stools (faeces) or on toilet paper.
  • itching, discomfort or pain around the anus.
  • a sense of fullness, discomfort or pain in the rectum.
  • a lump near the end of the anus.
  • ulcers around the anus.
  • difficultymanaging the bowels.

Not every individual with these symptoms suffers from anal cancer. Other concerns, such as hemorrhoids or tears in the anal canal (anal fissures), can also make these changes. However, if the symptoms are recurrent or continuous, it is better to consult your general practitioner (GP) for a check-up.

Anal Cancer Treatment

After the cancer is detected and staged, a dedicated cancer care hospitalin India will talk with you about available treatment options. The major objective of cancer treatment in India is to safeguard the anal sphincter muscles so as to enable the patient for bowel control and there's less effect in your general quality of life.

Based on the available treatment options, one might come across different types of doctors in India inacancer care team. These doctors could include:

  • A radiation oncologist: an expert who treats cancer with radiation therapy.
  • A medical oncologist: a healthcare expert who treats cancer with medicines such as chemotherapy.
  • A surgical oncologist (oncologic surgeon): a doctor who employs surgery to treat cancer.
  • A colorectal surgeon (proctologist): a medical expert who resorts surgery to treat diseases of the colon, rectum, and anus.

In recent times, India has emerged out as the most sought after avenue for anal cancer treatment. The anal cancer treatment in India is world-class and backed by a proficient team of cancer specialists in India. Millions of people from different corners of the world come to India to get superlative degree of cancer treatment at affordable cost.

 

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